Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States

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The Atlanta College of Art ACA , founded in , was a four-year accredited private art college in the city until , when it was absorbed by the. Skip to main content. Geechee and Gullah Culture Original entry by. Althea Sumpter , Georgia Institute of Technology,. Explore This Article Contents.

Although the islands along the southeastern U. Modern-day researchers designate the region stretching from Sandy Island, South Carolina, to Amelia Island, Florida, as the Gullah Coast—the locale of the culture that built some of the richest plantations in the South. Many traditions of the Gullah and Geechee culture were passed from one generation to the next through language, agriculture , and spirituality.

The culture has been linked to specific West African ethnic groups who were enslaved on island plantations to grow rice , indigo , and cotton starting in , when antislavery laws ended in the Georgia colony. Hulling Rice. Rice plantations fostered Georgia's successful economic competition with other slave-based rice economies along the Eastern Seaboard. Coastal plantations invested primarily in rice, and plantation owners sought out Africans from the Windward Coast of West Africa Senegambia [later Senegal and the Gambia], Sierra Leone, and Liberia , where rice, indigo, and cotton were indigenous to the region.

For example, Africa's Windward Coast was later commonly referred to as the Rice Coast in recognition of the large numbers of Africans enslaved from that area who worked on rice plantations in America. Sea Islands. Gullah is thought to be a shortened form of Angola , the name of the group first imported to the Carolinas during the early colonial period. Geechee , historically considered a negative word identifying Sea Islanders, became an acceptable term in light of contemporary evidence linking it to West Africa.

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Although the origins of the two words are not definitive, some enslaved Africans along the coast had names that were linked to the Kissi group, leading to speculation that the terms may also derive from that particular culture. Linguist Lorenzo Dow Turner researched and documented spoken words on the coast during the s, traced similarities to ethnic groups in West Africa, then published the Gullah dialect lexicon, Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect His research confirms the evolution of a new language based on West African influences and English.

Margaret Washington Creel in A Peculiar People: Slave Religion and Community-Culture among the Gullahs identifies cultural and spiritual habits that relate to similar ethnic groups of West Africans who are linked by language. Her research on the coastal culture complements Turner's findings that Africans on the Sea Islands created a new identity despite the tragic conditions of slavery. Documentation of the developing culture on the Georgia islands dates to the nineteenth century.

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By the late twentieth century, researchers and scholars had confirmed a distinctive group and identified specific commonalities with locations in West Africa. The rice growers' cultural retention has been studied through language, cultural habits, and spirituality. The research of Mary A. Twining and Keith E. The Fanner Basket. Religious meetings in "praise houses" were the spiritual outlet for enslaved Africans on the plantation. Fast-paced rhythmic hand clapping accompanied ring shout spiritual songs while participants Praise House. In the early s Lorenzo Dow Turner recorded a song that islander Amelia Dawley had been taught by her mother, Octavia "Tawba" Shaw, who was born into slavery.

Dawley taught the song to her own daughter, Mary Moran, who became the last person in the United States to know the song, which would link her to a small village in Sierra Leone sixty years later. Anthropologist Joseph Opala, Jabati and Moran. In the two women met in the African village to share and reenact what was understood as a Mende funeral song, sung only by the women of Jabati's family lineage, who conducted the funerals of the village. Evidence suggests that a female member of Moran's family had been forced into captivity from the village nearly years before.

The return of the song and the visit from the Moran family led to a countrywide celebration that can be viewed in the documentary The Language You Cry In The discovery of the song and subsequent linguistic research confirmed yet another link between the cultures of West Africa and the Georgia coast. Such corresponding practices as similar names, language structures, folktales , kinship patterns, and spiritual transference are but a few areas that suggest a particular link between the southeastern coastal culture of the United States and Sierra Leone in West Africa.

Thousands of slaves from Georgia and South Carolina who remained loyal to the British at the end of the American Revolution found safe haven in Nova Scotia in Canada and thus gained their freedom. What's on This Site Sample pages, tables of contents, price, availability are on this site.

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  8. For tables of contents, sample pages click the Publications by Area section below. For price, availability --all titles listed here are in print-- and ordering information, click on Ordering and Terms below. For information on forthcoming volumes of encyclopedias, annuals, documents, click on What's New below. Featured Titles Nationalism and Ethnicities Terminologies by Thomas Spira; NOW volume 3 in print 1 October "Recommended for college and university collections"-- Choice "In every field one title emerges as the voice that becomes recognized as the authority.

    For the first time this work organizes, synthesizes and clarifies a long and complex story and suggests the future of economic exchange between these two nations. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Cahn, Susan. New York: Free Press, Gorn, Elliott.

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    Englewood Cliffs, N. Riess, Steven A. Seymour, Harold. New York: Oxford University Press, — Smith, Ronald A. New York: Oxford University Press, Tygiel, Jules. Wiggins, David K. Syracuse, N. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 22, Retrieved September 22, from Encyclopedia.

    Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. There can be no true sports without the idea of fair play.

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    We believe that it can enhance community spirit, equality of opportunity, personal development and social integration. The origins of sport in general lie in their practice for combat and war. Fencing is depicted on Egyptian murals from the time of the pyramids; appropriately, sabre and foil are two of only fifteen disciplines included in every modern Olympic Games since Robert Dover codified English country sports into his celebrated Dover's Cotswold Olimpicks , in , almost certainly attended by Shakespeare , which continued until Baron de Coubertin had his idea to found a modern Olympics partly from his attendance at the similar Much Wenlock Olympics in Shropshire.

    Both these festivals run today. The equivalent sports festivals in Scotland are the Highland Games. In Scotland also, during nearly years from the Peace of Glasgow in to the Revolution of , every reigning monarch of the Stuart line, including Mary Queen of Scots , played golf — a sport which has been played on the moon.

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    The ancient Olympic Games were religious festivals which commenced with a procession along the sacred way, the Pompike Othos, followed by sacrifice and oath-taking. The athletes were all men and competed naked, and only one woman was permitted to spectate, a priestess of Demeter , the Goddess of earth and harvests. The Komos was the ceremonial crowning of the victors with olive leaves on the fifth day, after which they returned in triumph to greater wealth and status in their city states.

    The Olympic Games were primarily occasions to honour Zeus , but their origins are to be found long before the Greeks came to the Mediterranean.

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    Although the first Games are reputed to have been held in bc, the site was occupied a thousand years earlier. After celebrations, Emperor Theodosius banned them in ad , ostensibly for corruption and professionalism, but essentially because as a converted Christian he disapproved of their pagan associations. An idea of such festivals may be gained in the Duveen gallery of the British Museum , from the frieze which originally decorated the Parthenon.

    The modern Games, and many other major sports festivals, follow a similar format. The major change in modern sport apart from the expansion of women's participation is the massive impact of money and professionalism. This is not entirely new: many of the ancient Greek Olympians had their training expenses paid and subsistence provided, and although there were no money prizes at the Games, nevertheless, the champions could look forward to major material rewards back in their city states.

    The concept of amateurism in Britain arose as a means of preventing the working classes from competing against the aristocracy. As late as the s physical education teachers were considered professional athletes and thus ineligible for the Olympics. An important change in Britain has been much better subsistance finance mainly lotttery funding for full-time training for selected athletes. At the Sydney Olympics 28 medals and ten 4th places vindicated this policy. Rules of the games It is axiomatic that sport is played to rules, which are formed to establish equality.

    By contrast, 0. But beyond the rules there are also meta-rules, unwritten systems of conventions which embed the rules in a value system, signalled by victory award ceremonies or football team celebrations. A bowler, bowling a grubber to prevent a winning run being scored, defies the conventions of cricket, but not its rules.

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    When Oliver McCall refused to fight Lennox Lewis in the boxing ring in Las Vegas in , he defied not the rules, but the conventions. And sport is often powerless against those who defy its conventions. The requirements of modern sport The requirements of modern sport can be considered in terms of the total expert input into a National Team or Olympic Squad although a much scaled down version is applicable to the preparation of a Saturday primary school team.

    Many areas of expertise are needed: Specialist equipment advances continually.

    ipdwew0030atl2.public.registeredsite.com/428708-how-to.php It was noted that a marathoner running at metres per minute around 2 hours 10 minutes needed 62 ml of oxygen per kg per minute with a then conventional shoe, but only An aerodynamic, low profile, smaller wheeled, helium-tyred, lighter bicycle 5. From —60 the pole vault world record improved by Modern rackets in tennis and squash have increased ball speed. The Formula 1 Grand Prix car has changed out of all recognition in the past thirty years — and so on. Technical and motor skills have also vastly improved, due to education of coaches regarding motor skill learning and also to detailed biomechnical analysis, in sports ranging from gymnastics to the football free kick.

    As a biomechanist , Dick Fosbury won Olympic gold and set a high jump record by realizing that, as the centre of gravity of the body is nearer the back than the front, it made more sense to go over the high jump bar on his back, thus not needing to lift the centre of gravity quite as high, for the same height of jump. Not all technical improvements are feasible; for example a new javelin technique was perfected whereby the thrower greased the javelin tail, held it initially in the middle, and span like a discus thrower before release.

    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States
    Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States Encyclopedia of ethnicity and sports in the United States

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